Faculty

Michael G. WhiteMichael G. White, Professor

Joint with Brookhaven National Laboratory

B.S., 1974, University of Pittsburgh
Ph.D., 1979, University of California
Research Associate, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 1979-80
Senior Chemist, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1995-present
Chair, Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2000-2001
Professor, SUNY Stony Brook, 2001-present

521 Chemistry
BNL Phone: (631) 344-4345 | USB Phone: (631) 632-1722
Email: |

The White Group Website

Research Areas

Dynamics at Surfaces

Our research is aimed at providing a molecular level understanding of the energetics, dynamics and morphology-dependence of elementary surface reactions that play key roles in energy-related catalysis. Specifically, we are interested in systems involving simple feedstock chemicals (e.g., H2, CO, CO2, O2, CH4), the selective oxidation of C1 and C2 molecules (e.g., CH3OH, C2H4) and reaction systems that have environmental impact (e.g., De-NOx, De-SOx). We approach these problems from a chemical physics perspective in which experiments are designed to probe the adsorbate-metal potential surface and the dynamical paths that lead to reaction. Our experimental program makes extensive use of lasers for both state-selective detection of desorbed products and the photo-initiation of surface processes such as desorption, diffusion, dissociation and reaction. Current studies are focused on understanding the photoinduced reactions on semi-conducting surfaces such as titania (TiO2); whose photoactivity is widely used for removing organic pollutants from air and water, for anti-fogging and self-cleaning surfaces and as a potential photocatayst for solar water splitting.

figure 1

Catalysis on the Nanoscale

We are interested in understanding how the physical (size, structure) and chemical environment (support, pressure) of nanostructured catalysts effects their activity for heterogeneous reactions important in energy-related catalysis. Systems include noble metal (Cu, Au, Rh, Pd) nanoparticles supported on metal oxide (titania, ceria) surfaces for hydrogen production through the water-gas-shift reaction (CO + H2O ® CO2 + H2) as well as the synthesis of liquid fuels such as ethanol from renewable sources of hydrogen (nuclear, solar electrolysis) and CO2 from biomass or fossil fuel combustion. We are also investigating small nanoclusters of metal sulfides and carbides as possible replacements for the more expensive and rare noble metals for some catalysis applications. A major part of this effort is the development of techniques for preparing supported nanoparticles with narrow size-distributions and controlled chemical composition, e.g., metal to sulfur ratio. Methods include a novel size-selective cluster deposition apparatus, reactive metal evaporation and polymer-based micelle methods. Recent experiments have focused on the desulfurization reactions on small nanoclusters of molybdenum sulfide, MxSy, supported on Au(111) and Al2O3 surfaces in which the clusters are mass-selected before deposition which precisely fixes their size, structure and chemical composition.

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Publications

93. Dissociation of OCS on the Mo6S8+ Cluster Supported on Au(111), M. J. Patterson, Y. Choi, P. Liu, and M. G. White, J. Am. Chem. Soc., submitted.

92. Final State Distributions of O-2 Photodesorbed from TiO2(110), D. Sporleder, D. Wilson M. G. White, J. Phys. Chem. C, 113, 13180-13191 (2009).  

91. Adsorbate-Driven Morphological Changes of a Gold Surface at Low Temperatures, J. Hrbek, F. M. Hoffmann, J. B. Park, Ping Liu, D. Stacchiola, Y. Soo Hoo, S. Ma, A. Nambu,
J. A. Rodriguez, and M. G. White, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 17272-17273 (2008). 

90. Structure of Molybdenum and Tungsten Sulfide MxSy+ Clusters: Experiment and DFT Calculations, M. Patterson, J. M. Lightstone, and M. G. White, J. Physical Chemistry A 112,       12011-12021 (2008) 

89. Characterization and Reactivity of the Mo4S6+ Cluster deposited on Au(111) by Size-Selected Deposition, J. M. Lightstone, M. Patterson, J. Lofaro, P. Liu and M. G. White, J. Physical Chemistry C, 112, 11495–11506 (2008).  

88. In situ Time-resolved Characterization of Novel Cu-MoO2 Catalysts during the Water-Gas  Shift Reaction, W. Wen, J. Liu, M. G. White, N. Marinkovic, J. C. Hanson, and J. Rodriguez,    Catal. Letters, 113, 1-7 (2007). 

87. Gas Phase Reactivity of the Ti8C12+ Met-car with Tri-atomic Sulfur Containing Molecules:   CS2, SCO, and SO2, J. M. Lightstone, M. J. Patterson, P. Liu, and M. G. White, J. Phys.  Chem. A 110, 3505-3513 (2006). 

86. Gas-phase Interaction of Thiophene with the Ti8C12+ and Ti8C12 Met-Car Clusters,” P. Liu, J.     J. Lightstone, M. J. Patterson, J.A. Rodriguez, J. T. Muckerman and M. G. White, J. Phys.  Chem. B 110, 7449-7455 (2006). 

85. The Reactions of Cyclohexene on Au(111)-Supported Molybdenum Carbide Nanoparticles, D. V. Potapenko, J. Horn and M. G. White, Journal of Catalysis 236,  346-355 (2005).  

84. Reactivity of M4S6+ (M-Mo, W) Cluster with CO and NH3 in the Gas-Phase, J. M. Lightstone, M. J. Patterson and M. G. White, Chem. Phys. Lett. 413, 429-433 (2005). 

83. The Characterization of Molybdenum Carbide Nanoparticles Formed on Au(111) using Reactive-Layer Assisted Deposition, J. M. Horn, Z. Song, D. V. Potapenko, J. Hrbek and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. B (Communication) 109, 44-47 (2005). 

82. Reactivity Studies with Gold-Supported Molybdenum Nanoparticles, D. V. Potapenko, J. M. Horn, R. J. Beuhler, Z. Song and M. G. White, Surf. Sci. 574, 244-258 (2005). 

81. State-resolved dynamics of oxygen atom recombination on polycrystalline Ag, R.J. Beuhler   and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys., 120, 2445 (2004). 

80. Gas-Phase Production of Molybdenum Carbide, Nitride and Sulfide Clusters and  Nanocrystallites, J. M. Lightstone, H. Mann, M. Wu, P. M. Johnson, and M. G. White, J Phys. Chem, B 107, 10359 (2003). 

79. A Study of the Partial Oxidation of Methanol on a Polycrystalline Ag Membrane, R. J. Beuhler, R. M. Rao and M. G. White, J. Phys. Chem. 105, 5950 (2000).

78. Acetone n-Radical Cation Internal Roration Spectrum: The Torsional Potential Surface, D. A.      Shea, L. Goodman and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys., 112, 2762 (2000)

77. State-Selective Laser Photochemistry of Formaldehyde on Ag(111), R. M. Rao, J. Dvorak, R. J. Beuhler and M. G. White, J. Phys. Chem. B, 102, 9050 (1998)

76. Non-Thermal Photodesorption of N2 from Ag(111), R. M. Rao, R. J. Beuhler and M. G.  White, J. Chem. Phys., 109, 8016 (1998)

75. Two-Color ZEKE-PFI Spectroscopy of the Acetone n-Radical Cation: the a2 Torsional   Vibration, R. T. Wiedmann, L. Goodman and M. G. White, Chem. Phys. Lett. 293, 391    (1998)

74. State-Resolved Photodesorption of CO From Ag (111):  Non-Thermal Desorption at 1064 nm, L. E. Fleck, R. J. Beuhler and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 3813 (1997)

73. State-Resolved Photoionization of Small Molecules, M. G. White, In Frontiers of Chemical       Dynamics, E. Yurtsever, Editor, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, 1995) p. 43.

72. Geometry Changes in Molecular Photoionization:  The NH3+ (X2A2) ¬ NH3 (X 1A1) Transition, B. Niu and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 2136 (1996)

71. State-Resolved Dynamics of Infrared Desorption of CO from Ag (111), L. E. Fleck, B. Niu, R. J. Beuhler and M. G. White, Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 2547, 298 (1995).

70. Rotational Analysis of the Threshold Photoelectron Spectra of Room Temperature and Jet-Cooled CO2, R. T. Weidmann, M. G. White, H. Lefevrre-Brion and C. Cossart, J. Chem.  Phys. 103, 10417 (1995)

69. State-Resolved Photoionization Dynamics of Small Molecules Using Coherent VUV Radiation, R. T. Wiedmann and M. G. White, In Current Topics in Ion Chemistry and Physics:  Highly Resolved Laser Photoionization and Photoelectron Studies, I. Powis, T. Baer   and C.Y. Ng eds, (John Wiley, Chichester, England, 1995), p. 79

68. Vibronic Coupling in the X2P and A2S+ States of HCN+, R. T. Wiedmann and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 102, 5141 (1995)

67. Rotationally Resolved Threshold Photoelectron Spectroscopy of H2O and H2S, K. Wang, M.- T. Lee, V. McKoy, R. T. Wiedmann and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 219, 397-404 (1994)

66. Rotationally Resolved Photoionization of Polyatomic Hydrides:  CH3, H2O, H2S, H2CO, R. T. Wiedmann, M. G. White, K. Wang and V. McKoy, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 4738-4746 (1994)

65. The VUV Photodissociation of the Chlorofluorocarbons:  Photolysis of CF2Cl, CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 at 187 nm, 125 nm and 118 nm, M.-W. Yen, P. M. Johnson and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 126-139 (1993)

64. Single-Photon Threshold Photoionization of NO, R. T. Wiedmann, M. G. White, K. Wang and V. McKoy, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 7673-7679 (1993)

63. Rotationally-Resolved Threshold Photoelectron Spectrum of the Methyl Radical, J. A. Blush, P. Chen, R. T. Wiedmann and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 3557-3559 (1993)

62. Rotationally Resolved Photoionization with Coherent VUV Radiation, R. T. Wiedmann, R. G. Tonkyn and M. G. White, 10th International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Physics, Paris, France, July 27-31, 1992

61. Photoionization Dynamics and Cation Spectroscopy with Coherent VUV Radiation, R. T.   Wiedmann, R. G. Tonkyn, E. R. Grant and M. G. White, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 128 Sect.5, 161-166 (1992).

60. Rotationally Resolved Threshold Photoelectron Spectra of OH and OD, R. T. Wiedmann, R. G. Tonkyn, M. G. White, K. Wang and V. McKoy, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 768-772 (1992)

59. Proposed UV-FEL User Facility at BNL, I. Ben-Zvi, L. F. DiMauro, S. Krinsky, M. G. White, L. H. Yu, K. Batchelor, A. Friedman, A. S. Fisher, H. Halama, G. Ingold, E. D. Johnson, S. Kramer, J. T. Rogers, L. Solomon, J. Wachtel and X. Zhang, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A318, 201-207 (1992)

58. Ion Rotational Distributions for Near-Threshold Photoionization of H2O, M. T. Lee, K. Wang,  V. McKoy, R. G. Tonkyn, R. T. Wiedmann, E. R. Grant and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 7848-7851 (1992)

57. Rotationally Resolved Threshold Photoionization of H2S, R. T. Wiedmann and M. G. White, SPIE Proceedings, Conf. 1638 - Optical Methods for Time- and State-Resolved Chemistry, SPIE Vol. 1638, pp. 273-283, Los Angeles, CA, January 19-25, 1992

56. Anomalous Branch Intensities in the Threshold Photoionization of HCl, R. G. Tonkyn, R. T.     Wiedmann and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 3696-3701 (1992)

55. ZEKE Threshold Photoelectron Spectroscopy:  Photoionization Dynamics and the Level Structure of Molecular Cations, E. R. Grant and M. G. White, Nature 354, 249-250 (1991)

54. Vibrational Resolved Photoionization of Xe2+ by Pulsed Field Ionization, R. G. Tonkyn and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 5582-5589 (1991)

53. Rotationally Resolved Photoionization of H2O, R. G. Tonkyn, R. Wiedmann, E. R. Grant and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7033-7040 (1991)

52. Proposed UV-FEL User Facility at BNL, I. Ben-Zvi, L. F. DiMauro, S. Krinsky, M. G. White and L. H. Yu, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A304, 181-186 (1991)

51. High-Resolution Threshold Photoionization of N2O, R. T. Wiedmann, E. R. Grant, R. G. Tonkyn and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 746-753 (1991)

50. Shape Resonance Effects in the Rotationally Resolved Photoelectron Spectra of O2, M. Braunstein, V. McKoy, S. N. Dixit, R. G. Tonkyn and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. Commun. 93, 5345-5346 (1990)

49. Chemistry with Synchrotron Radiation, J. M. Preses, J. R. Grover, A. Kvick and M. G. White, Amer. Sci. 78, 424-437 (1990)

48. Production of C2H4Cl+ by Dissociative Photoionization of Weak Molecular Complexes in C2H4 + HCl Mixtures E. A. Walters, J. R. Grover, D. L. Arneberg, C. J. Santandrea and M. G.  White, Zeitschrift für Physik D 16, 283-292 (1990)

47. Photoionization Studies of Internally Reactive Small Clusters:  The van der Waals Complexes     of 1,3-Butadiene with Sulfur Dioxide, J. R. Grover, E. A. Walters, J. K. Newman and M. G.   White, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 6499-6506 (1990)

46. Rotationally Resolved Photoionization of O2+ Near Threshold, R. G. Tonkyn, J. W. Winniczek and M. G. White, Chem. Phys. Lett. 164, 137-142 (1989)

45. Photoionization and Photoelectron Spectroscopy of O2 with Coherent VUV Radiation, R. G. Tonkyn, J. W. Winniczek and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 6632-6642 (1989)

44. Compact VUV Source for Photoelectron Spectroscopy, R. G. Tonkyn and M. G. White, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1245-1251 (1989)

43. A Multiphoton Ionization Study of the Photodissociation Dynamics of the S2 State of CH3ONO, J. W. Winniczek, R. L. Dubs, J. R. Appling, V. McKoy and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 90, 949-963 (1989)

42. Shape Resonance Influence on the Photoelectron Angular Distributions from O2 C3Pg, v = 0–3, P. J. Miller, W. A. Chupka, J. Winniczek and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 4058-4061   (1988)

41. Vibrationally Resolved Electronic Autoionization of Core-Hole Resonances, E. D. Poliakoff, L. A. Kelly, L. M. Duffy, B. Space, P. Roy, S. H. Southworth and M. G. White, J. Chem.   Phys. 89, 4048 (1988)

40. Photoionization of Aligned Molecular Excited States, J. R. Appling, M. G. White, W. J. Kessler, R. Fernandez and E. D. Poliakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 2300-2308 (1988)

39. Multichannel Interactions in the Resonant Photoionization of HCl, M. G. White, G. E. Leroi, M.-H. Ho and E. D. Poliakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6554-6558 (1987)

38. Circular Dichroism in Photoelectron Angular Distributions from Two-Color (1 + 1) REMPI    of NO, J. R. Appling, M. G. White, R. L. Dubs, S. N. Dixit and V. McKoy, J. Chem. Phys.  87, 6927-6933 (1987)

37. MPI Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Ungerade Excited States of Acetylene:  Intermediate State Mixing and Ion State Selection, T. M. Orlando, S. L. Anderson, J. R. Appling and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 852-860 (1987)

36. Preparation of Cationic Intermediates by Dissociative Photoionization of van der Waals      Complexes.  C6H6Cl+ from a C6H6 + HCl Mixture, E. A. Waters, J. R. Grover, M. G. White   and E. T. Hui, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2758-2762 (1987)

35. Observation of Circular Dichroism in Photoelectron Angular Distributions, J. R. Appling, M. G. White, T. M. Orlando and S. L. Anderson, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6803-6804 (1986)

34. Rotational Distributions of Molecular Photoions Following Resonant Excitation, E. D. Poliakoff, J. C. K. Chan and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6232-6233 (1986)

33. Vibrational Branching Ratios and Photoionization Dynamics for N2O, E. D. Poliakoff, M.-H. Ho, M. G. White and G. E. Leroi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 130, 91-97 (1986)

32. Constant Ionic State Spectroscopy of N2O.  Dispersed Fluorescence as a Probe of Molecular     Autoionization, E. D. Poliakoff, M.-H. Ho, G. E. Leroi and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 85, 5529-5534 (1986)

31. Third Harmonic Interference Effects in the MPI Spectrum of Acetylene, T. M. Orlando, L. Li, S. L. Anderson and M. G. White, Chem. Phys. Lett. 129, 31-35 (1986)

30. A Photoionization Study of the van der Waals Molecule C2H4·HCl and its Fragment Photoion      C2H4Cl+, E. A. Walter, J. R. Grover and M. G. White, Zeit. Phys. D: Atoms, Molecules and Clusters 4, 103-110 (1986)

29. Vibrational Analysis of the A-X Photodissociation Spectrum of CH3I+, A. M. Woodward, S. D. Colson, W. A. Chupka and M. G. White, J. Phys. Chem. 90, 274-278 (1986)

28. Non-Franck-Condon 2su-1 Vibrational Distributions in N2+.  An Interchannel-Coupled Shape    Resonance Observed by Dispersed Fluorescence, E. D. Poliakoff, M.-H. Ho, G. E. Leroi and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 84, 4779-4785 (1986)

27. Photoelectron Studies of Autoionizing Rydberg States in HCl, M. G. White and J. R. Grover,    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, Report No. ANL-PHYS-85-3, (1985)

26. Measurement of the Dissociation Energies of Gas Phase Neutral Dimers by a Photoionization Technique:  Values for trans-2-Butene/Sulfur Dioxide, (trans-2-Butene)2, and Benzene/Sulfur Dioxide, J. R. Grover, E. A. Waters, J. K. Newman and M. G. White, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 107, 7329-7339 (1985)

25. The Effects of Autoionization on the Alignment of Cd+(4d95s2,2D5/2) in the Range 680 Ǻ - 710Ǻ, Z. M. Goodman, C. D. Caldwell and M. G. White, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1156-1159 (1985)

24. On the Structure and Thermochemistry of the van der Waals Molecule C6H6·HCl and Its Photoion (C6H6·HCl)+, E. A. Walters, J. R. Grover, M. G. White and E. T. Hui, J. Phys. Chem. 89, 3814-3818 (1985)

23. Electron Photodetachment from Transient Negative Ions in the Multiphoton Ionization of CH3I, W. A. Chupka, A. M. Woodard, S. D. Colson and M. G. White, J. Chem. Phys. 82, 4880-4885 (1985)

22. Nonstatistical Behavior in the Dissociative Photoionization of the 1,3-Butadiene/Sulfur  Dioxide van der Waals Complex, E. A. Walters, J. R. Grover, J. K. Newman and M. G. White, Chem. Phys. Lett. 111, 190-194 (1984)

21. Resonant Multiphoton Ionization of NO Via the A2S+ State:  Photoelectron Spectra and Angular Distributions, M. G. White, W. A. Chupka, M. Seaver, A. Woodward and S. D. Colson, J. Chem. Phys. 80, 678-686 (1984)

20. Inner-Valence Shell Photoionization of Ar2, Ar3, Kr2 and Kr3, M. G. White and J. R. Grover, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 4124-4131 (1983)

19. Resonance Photoelectron Spectroscopy of 5p-Hole States in Atomic Barium, P. H. Kobrin, R.   A. Rosenberg, V. Becker, S. Southworth, C. M. Truesdale, D. W. Lindle, G. Thornton, M. G. White, E. D. Poliakoff and D. A. Shirley, J. Phys. B16, 4339 (1983)

18. Observation of Rydberg(C2P)-Valence(B2 P) Interactions in NO by Multiphoton  Photoelectron Spectroscopy, M. G. White, M. Seaver, W. A. Chupka and S. D. Colson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 28-31 (1982)

17. Photoelectron Angular Distributions from Electron-Atom Collisions, M. G. White, Phys. Rev. A 26(4), 1907-1914 (1982)

16. Absolute Dipole Oscillator Strengths for Photoabsorption and Photoionization of Carbon   Disulphide, F. Carnovale, M. G. White and C. E. Brion, J. Electron Spect. & Rel. Phenom. 24, 63 (1981)

15. Absolute Dipole Oscillator Strengths for the Photoionization and Photoabsorption of COS (5- 50 eV), M. G. White, K. T. Leung and C. E. Brion, J. Electron Spect. & Rel. Phenom. 23, 127   (1981)

14. On the Valence Shell Binding Energy Spectrum of Carbonyl Sulfide, J. P. D. Cook, M. G. White, C. E. Brion, W. Domcke, J. Schirmer, L. S. Cederbaum and W. Von Niessen, J.  Electron Spect. & Rel. Phenom. 22, 261 (1981)

13. Decay Dynamics of CN* (B2S+) and XeF* (B2S+ and C2P3/2) States, E. D. Poliakoff, S. H.    Southworth, M. G. White, G. Thornton, R. A. Rosenberg and D. A. Shirley, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 1786 (1980)

12. The Photoelectron Angular Distributions of HBr and HI AT hn = 21.2 ev, M. G. White, S. H. Southworth, P. Kobrin and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron Spect. & Rel. Phenom. 19, 115 (1980)

11. Angular Distribution of Xe 5s ®ep Photoelectrons Near the Cooper Minium, M. G. White, S. H. Southworth, P. Kobrin, E. D. Poliakoff, R. A. Rosenberg and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1661 (1979)

10. Selective Resonant Enhancement of Electron-Correlation Satellites in Atomic Barium, R. A. Rosenberg, M. G. White, G. Thornton and D. A. Shirley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1384 (1979)

9. Time-of-Flight Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Gases Using Synchrotron Radiation, M. G. White, R. A. Rosenberg, E. D. Poliakoff, S. H. Southworth and D. A. Shirley, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1384 (1979)

8. Fluorescence Decay of the Ou+ and 1u States of Xe2, G. Thornton, E. D. Poliakoff, E. Matthias,  S. H. Southworth, R. A. Rosenberg, M. G. White and D. A. Shirley, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 133 ( 979)

7. The He I Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the GeX (X=O,S,Se,Te) and SnX (X=S,Se,Te) Group   IV-VI Diatomics M. G. White, R. A. Rosenberg, S.-T. Lee and D. A. Shirley, J. Electron  Spect. And Rel. Phenom. 17, 323 (1979)

6. Lifetime of the Xe II 5sp6 2S1/2 State, R. A. Rosenberg, M. G. White, E. D. Poliakoff, G. Thornton and D. A. Shirley, J. Phys. B:  Atom Molec. Phys. 11, L719 (1978)

5. Time Resolved Spectroscopy Using Synchrotron Radiation:  Zeeman Beats in Resonance   Fluorescence of the 3P1 States in Krypton and Xenon, E. Matthias, M. G. White, E. D. Poliakoff, R. A. Rosenberg, S.-T. Lee and D. A. Shirley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 54, 30 (1978)

4. Time Resolved VUV Spectroscopy Using Synchrotron Radiation: Fluorescent Lifetimes of  Atomic Kr and Xe, E. Matthias, R. A. Rosenberg, E. D. Poliakoff, M. G. White, S.-T. Lee and   D. A. Shirley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 52, 239 (1977)

3. Photoelectron Spectroscopy and the Role of Relaxation Energy in Understanding Chemical  Shifts, F. W. Ellison and M. G. White, J. Chem. Ed. 53, 430 (1976)

2. Electronic Structure of Hydrazoic Acid and Azide Ion from X-Ray and Ultraviolet Electron Spectroscopy, T. H. Lee, R. J. Colton, M. G. White and J. W. Rabalais, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 4845 (1975)

1. Electronic Structure of N,N-Dimethylnitramine and N,N-Dimethylnitrosamine from X-Ray and  UV Electron Spectroscopy, M. White, R. J. Colton, T. H. Lee and J. W. Rabalais, Chem. Phys.8, 391 (1975)

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